1.1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth ~ 19 years.
Aspects of a child and young person’s development include:
Physical development: Gross motor skills (using large muscles such as arms and legs), fine motor skills (precise use of muscles such as hands and fingers).
Social and Emotional: This is the development of a child’s identity and self image, the development of relationships and learning the skills of living in society.
Intellectual/communication: Learning the skills of understanding, communicating with others.
As every child grows at a different rate to each other so do other aspects of their personal development ~ therefore this is just a rough guide to a child and young person development.
Social and Emotional behaviour from 0~19years:
From birth a baby can respond to touch and sound, will recognise a parent or carers voice and will stare at bright shiny objects. Even from a few months old they will smile and engage with their carer and by 4 months can vocalise by ‘cooing’ and ‘babbling. From 6 months old an infant will become more interested in social interaction, although that depends on the amount of time spent with other children and his/hers personality, they will also have a fear of strangers and distress at the separation of a parent or carer. By the time they are 9 months old an infant can recognise familiar and unfamiliar faces. From 1 year ‘temper tantrums’ may have begun. They become more demanding and assertive and can express rage at being told ‘no’, they have no idea of sharing and a strong sense of ‘mine’.
From 2~4 years a child is learning to be separated from a parent or carer for short periods of time i.e.: nursery or playgroup which then gives them more social awareness. Some will play in groups of 2 or 3 and will be able to share ideas. Most children between this age group may have close friends and will still play with both genders.
By 4~7 a child should have started school and will be able to enjoy their independence although still needing comfort and reassurance. By now a good sense of self awareness (both positive and negative) will have been developed. These include fears such as ‘things under the bed’ and ‘ghosts’. Children around this age are able to form firm friendships and have begun to play in separate *** groups, they are fairly confident and know the difference between right and wrong.
7~11 year olds are by now starting to understand more about the world and where they belong. Their friendships become very important and are mostly of the same ***. Children of this age become concerned of what people think of them and can often become unsure about changes in settings. Strong signs of independence from parents and family also start to show.
From the age of 11~16 a young person will be going through a huge transition in his/her life (both physically and mentally). Their bodies are starting to change which can affect self esteem and confidence, peer pressure can become a significant influence. Young adolescents become more independent and want to spend more time with friends than family. Mood swings and confrontation become more apparent and the opposite *** becomes of more interest. Between this age a young person could start to think about their future and what they could achieve.
Between the ages of 16~19 a young person will have developed more of an understanding about life, will be able to give good reasons for their choices and express their own views. Relationships with their parents will have improved although they will still want to spend more time with their friends. As adolescents become more aware of their strengths and weaknesses and will have started to create their own personal identity in society.
Physical Development from 0~19 years (Gross and Fine Motor Skills)
As a newborn, infants are showing signs of physical development. They can move their head and limbs, will start to grasp fingers and if held in an upright position use their legs in a stepping movement. By 6 months old an infant can roll from their backs onto their stomachs and push their head, chest and neck off the floor. By 1 year they could be sitting alone without support, reach out for toys and could also be mobile through crawling or shuffling. By this age a child will have started to show hand preference, can click two cubes together and will place the cubes in a box when shown how to. At 18 months a child may be able to walk alone, will push and pull toys when walking and are able to kick, roll and throw a ball. Some children are capable of using a spoon, turn a handle of a door and pull off their shoes.
Between the ages of 2 and 4 year a child will have greatly improved both their gross and fine motor skills. Most young children can jump off the ground with both feet. They can walk up and down stairs with both feet on one step and run without falling. Some children may also be able to pedal a tricycle, aim, throw and catch a large ball and walk on their tiptoes. Toddlers may also be able to follow a simple dancing rhythm. Fine motor skills of a young child between 2 and 4 years may include drawing circles and dots, drawing faces and turning a single page in a book. They are capable of using a spoon to feed themselves, can thread large beads and undo buttons. By the time a child is 4 they are capable of drawing more detailed pictures of people and can cut around an object with scissors.
From the ages of 4~7 a child’s fine motor skills may include; putting together a 12 piece jigsaw and are able to button and unbutton their own clothes. By 5 years they are learning to form letters and some are capable of writing their own name with no support. At around 7 years old a child is able to control a pencil in a small area and accurately use a pair of scissors. Some children may have a better understanding of making intricate models. Gross motor skills for a 4~7 year old can include jumping, riding a bicycle. They are able to run quickly, be skilled enough to hit a ball accurately with a bat and balance on a wall or beam. Some children may be capable of roller skating and get up without using their hands for support.
Both skills (gross and motor) are being enhanced by the time a child has reached the age of 11. They will have improved on the physical skills they have already developed. Their body strength will have increased along with their balance and coordination. Children will have increased in both weight and height and some young girls from as young as 8, puberty may have begun. Breasts may start to develop and their menstruation cycle begins. Young adolescents’ fine motor skills will have enhanced and concentration can be held for longer which enables them to perform more complex tasks. Some children may have developed talents such as music, dancing and playing a musical instrument e.g. piano, cello or violin. A child’s writing will have improved and should now be learning how to write using ‘joined up writing’.
During adolescence, young people go through many changes as they move from childhood into teenagers. Between the ages of 11~16 a young girls breasts will have started to develop and will have fully developed between 12~18 years old. A girls menstrual cycle may start as early as 12 and as late as 15. Pubic, armpit and underarm hair will grow equivalent to that of an adults at around 13~14 years old. Boys may begin to notice that their testicles and scrotum are growing and by the age of 16 or 17 their genitals are usually at their adult size. Pubic as well as armpit, leg, chest and facial hair begins to grow at about age 12 and is equivalent to that of an adult about 15 to 16 years. Physically, teenagers become much stronger and develop gross motor skills through a wide range of sports. Fine motor skills could consist of knitting, sewing, along with arts and crafts. By the time an adolescent has reached 19 years old, they could be sexually active and have children themselves. Some could be taller than their parents. A lot of teenagers who are going through these changes could be worried about personal image i.e. weight issues and how they look.
Intellectual and Communication Development 0~19 years
From birth to 3 years an infant will be capable of a vast amount of communication and intellectual skills. From birth they will cry when hungry, tired or distressed and can stop crying at the sound of a voice. A baby can respond differently to changes in the tone of a voice and will laugh and chuckle when being spoken to by a parent or carer. Infants can blink in reaction to bright lights and turn their heads to a soft light. By 6 months old a child can focus on small objects close by and reach out to grasp them. By the time a child has reached 1 year old he/she will know their name and can understand around 20 words e.g. cup, dog, dinner, as well as being able to understand a simple message such as ‘clap hands’ and ‘where are your shoes’. A 1 year old child will deliberately drop a toy and watch it fall and look in the correct place for toys that have rolled out of sight. A small child can build a tower of 3 blocks when shown; they are also able to turn several pages of a book and can point to a named object as well as parts of a body. By 18 months a child can make simple sentences and will have used more than 200 words by the time they have reached age 2. At 3 years a child can paint using a large brush, will also be competent enough to draw a man with a head and cut using scissors. Verbally, a 3 year should be able to count to 10 and can hold a simple conversation.
Vocally, a 3~4 year old child is able to understand the concept of questions and can ask ‘why?’, ‘what?’ and ‘how?’ They will know different parts of the body and are able to name different animals. Between 4~5 a child speech is fluent and they could be capable of giving you their full name, age and birthday. Some may even be able to give you their address. A few children can copy accents they have heard. Intellectually, a child between 4~8 years old can copy a square shape and write a range of letters; some spontaneously. They will understand the difference between heavy and light. Writing develops and by the age of 8, speech should be fluent and number of children may well be bi-lingual. By now a child should be reading with considerable ease and writing simple compositions. At 12 years, children are comfortable in producing intelligent thought out work and have the ability to transfer information from one situation and use it in another. Several children may be experiencing preference in subjects at school.
At 12~16, a young adolescent will be entering a crucial stage in their lives, most will be making a transition from junior school to secondary school, there they will develop the ability to use their initiative e.g. taking options at school and may have a clear preference to arts or science. Teenagers become less sociable towards their parents and peers. Communication becomes less and more aggressive. At this age it is important for a young adolescent to fit in and not appear different from his/her peers therefore image and personal appearance becomes more important.
Between 16~19 years of age young adolescents begin to think about their future. For some, 6th form or college may be an option; others may choose not to pursue further education and go to work. Adolescents develop the ability to speak rather than to ‘act out’ and relationships with parents and peers improve and become more honest and open. Peer group relationships may well be replaced by individual friendships and by this age a number of youths could be experiencing intimate relationships and a small amount may have children themselves
Tracy...obviously word it to how you want to say it x