An explanation of how different types of transitions can affect children and young people
1. Types of transitions
- personal experiences such as parent's separating, bereavement, begining or leaveing a place of care.
- change in environments
l - maturation, moving from one educational establishment to another.
- pubertyor medical conditions
Transitions matter - supporting childnens in their ealry years foundation stage
from better kid care.psu.edu... Understanding transitions
Mommy don't go
Transitions the clues Understanding emotional wellness
2. Common Transitions 0-19 years
, possible affects and benefit positive relationship may have:
• Babies weaning
- young children may not like the texture or taste of other foods and may lose weight if weaning attempts to replace a milk diet too early. Children may begin to have disturbed sleep patterns, be more irritable whilst awake and less motivated to try new foods.
help to overcome the anxiety during these times with use of a soothing, calm voice, reassurance through eye contact, physical contact to comfort, play ideas that help distract tension and diffuse worry, or maybe anger at facing another unwanted episode of food tasting. Motivate trying new foods by showing how you taste them first and what imapct that has - facial expression yum, where this is hesitant try a tongue tip & touch approach to a new food, have knowledge of baby led weaning and the benefits this has for self motivated experimentation with foods, tastes, flavours, textures that are set solely at the child's own pace:
Weaning and supporting children during this transition - leaflet from the Department of Health
• Loss of a comforter
- the transition between having a soother, dummy or pacifier and not having one can be quite traumatic. Supportive relationships
will understand that what a child has come to rely on for reassurance and comfort to assist sleep and achieve calm maywell be gone.
* Premature babies and using a pacifier on a special care baby unit
* Weaning babies from a dummy tips
* Soothers and dental problems
* Dummy guidance from the FSID foundation sudden infant death reseach regarding overheating and rem sleep
* Pacifiers and oral thrush
* Should I give my child a dummy - from speech and language therapy services of Halton and St Helens PCT
* Effect of a dummy/pacifier on breastfeeding research by Cochrane - and summary response from Rosie Dodds policy advisor to the NCT
• Move from crawling to walking
- this transition sees children reach new perspectives on thier lives, viewing the world around them from an independantly upright position. They can obtain items with greater ease, move with increasing speed.
Supportive relationships will ensure children explore their environment safely with interest and enjoyment.
Accidents and child development publication - supporting
• Move from cot to bed
- a child may feel insecure with new sleeping arrangements, may have disturbed sleep patterns, wake more or less frequently, be happier or more withdrawn / tired / aggressive / upset at leaving parents during the day. They may react negatively when they realise bed is the next part of their day and behaviour may regress.
Supportive relationships help to overcome these fraught, stressful times, reassuring children in ways that show it's ok to be concerned at changes - what is resillience and have knowledge of ideas that it's claimed help children establish healthy sleeping routines.
Children and sleep from the BBC and new bed storybooks and going to bed
• Move from nappies to using the toilet
- is a potential confidence and self esteem demoraliser. The reassurance that nappies offer can be enormous for both child and parent. Some children move effortlessly through this transition with seemingly minimal support, for others it is more difficult recognising the signs of needing the toilet, for them it can make accidents and the events that could occur in repsonse to an accident something to be dreaded and feared.
The independance that comes with using a toilet/potty alone is one of the firsts for the responsibilities involved with managing own care routines. Supportive relationships
understand when an accident happens, and shows that it's okay. That they can be cleaned up, everyone moves on and ressurance is given for trying again the next time.
Bladder and bowel control, potty training , toileting for children with autism.
• Starting nursery
- Attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth
Where children are unaccustomed to leaving parents or are feeling unwell, separation can be a very upsetting and confidence shattering experience. Repeats of this negativity may cause withdrawal, regression - toilet using children may begin to wet the bed, be aggressive where usually amenable and may begin experience anxiety issues - not wanting to go out, becoming fearful of separation/clingy, not want to take part in activities that would usually engage some interest. Supportive relationships
help children through this potentially difficult time by reassuring the child that it's ok to be upset at leaving their parent/carer, you know how much they love them, that you also have fun activities planned and would they like to join you. Policies and procedures for a setting will guide if parents stay or how you contact parents for collection due to illness. Benefits of supporting this transition are for the child's independance, their ability to deal with times of separation, resillience, and begin understanding how they have control of and can lead their own learning, socially, emotionally and intellectually.
• Joining primary school
• Joining a new nursery or reception class
- new faces, unknown personalities, lack of knowledge about who provides support will impacts on a child's confidence, ability to interact, be comfortable and relax. Nervousness or anxiety may iomapct in ways that have them need the toilet more frequently - anxiety and urination, request something to drink more frequently - anxiety and dry mouth, experience
a feeling of nausea, nervousness or regress to being aggressive and confrontational.
• Moving from one class to another
new year starts involve the uncertainty of not knowing a new teacher, a new room, resources and way of working.
During errand running concerns may involve worry at disturbing others in the room, this maybe heightened if children are older, teacher is unknown, fear that knocking will direct unwanted attention to themselves may prevent a child wanting to go/perform this type of task or be unwilling to enter the room - they may become quiet, withdraw and refuse to particpate when asked for volunteers. Positive relationships
can support children across the school by adults making themselves known to children. Personalities, attitude and approach will reassure the children on the type of support they could expect.
A permanent, new class environment offers the opportunity to experience different layouts, places where resources are kept and resource items themselves. Positive relationships can reassure children that access is the same as they're already used to. A tour of the new room and its facilities will help familiarise everyone with what's available and enble children to settle in and restablish routines.
• Starting a before or after school club
• Losing milk/first or primary teeth and gaining adult/permanent teeth
can be as painful a the eruption of the first milk teeth in babies: flushed cheeks, sore or aching gums & upset stomach which can all affect behaviour and mood. The realisation of growing up, gaining teeth that will be present for the rest of their lives can also cause excitement and concern. Supportive relationships know a tooth fairy where culturally appropriate, to help with the transition of tooth loss, the gap in a child's mouth and the awkwardness that has for chewing foods .. to the full growth of a new tooth, be able to provide relief from pain & discomfort and empower the child with information and ways to care for their teeth - dental hygiene. How not to forcibly pull out a loose tooth with fingers, string or other device as the tooth's root will resorb to the point that it is safe to fall out naturally - part of physiological development. Forced eviction could result in snapping the tooth, pain and infection.
Teeth development leaflet from
• Starting secondary school
• Going through puberty
• Starting new college
3. Less common Transitions 0-19 years
may involve sadness, depression, loss of self worth, value and direction in life. Supportive relationships can provide consistency in the knowledge that talking, communicating in ways that help a child come to terms with that sense of loss is healthy - bereavement from
• Moving home/area/country
• Moving away from home
• Starting a new college or university
• Change in family structure:
eg. Parents separating - divorce, new siblings, new step parent, step children, new baby
• Abuse - physical, emotional, sexual, neglect
• Significant illness or disability
4. Transitions for adults:
• Start employment
• Leave home
• Establish long term relationship, marriage
• Have children
• Change jobs
• Experience family death
5. How may affect children’s behaviour and development
Short term effects:
• Outbursts of anger
• Crying and tearfulness
• Clinginess/need for affection
• Unreasonable behaviour
• Tantrums in younger children
• Regression in behaviour
• Difficulty sleeping
• Loss of appetite
• Loss of motivation
• Lack of concentration
6. How may affect children’s behaviour and development
Long term effects:
• Self harming
• Avoiding social contact
• Lack of concentration
• Not learning/developing
• Low self confidence and self esteem
• Strained relationships
7. Supporting children through transition involves
• Explaining what's going on
• Discussing what is happening
• Providing activities that help to distraction, focus and give opportunities for communication, language and literacy
• Have routines that reassure children of what's next
• organise visits that help children be familiar with places they'll be attending.
The level three handbook
Transitions in the Early Years
: A practical guide to supporting children between early years settings and into Key Stage 1