4-7 years old
Gross motor skills
Climbs, hops, skips and likes to do stunts, good balance, has good co ordination, gaining in strength each passing year can jump off thing with confidence, will catch by 6 years with accuracy. Ride a trike then a bike. Can hop on either leg by 7 they will be able to control their speed and swerve to avoid crashes.
Is able to use and hold pencils, cut with scissors catch a ball, use a folk, knife and spoon, brush their teeth/hair .is able to thread beads can build towers from 10 blocks at 4 years but by 6 will be building straight writing their name from 4-5 years by 6 can write short stories.7 will be very competent writers drawing skill will increase.
Gross motor skills
Have increased body strength and co ordination with quicker response time, can ride a bike with ease skip freely enjoy team games even competitive sports
Bodies are starting to change girls puberty can be up to 2 years earlier than boys bodies start to grow and change shape to be like adults.
Have excellent control over small muscle groups so can draw and write with great skill and dexterity drawing will have fine details be able to add depth, shading and 3d to pictures able to write joined up. Older be able to do detailed needle work or wood work have their own writing style.
May show a talent for sport as they grow they might feel/become awkward hormones start to flow and sexual development has begun girls mature 2 years earlier than boys they will need more rest than any other time as the sexual changes continue they are very aware of their bodies appearance to others
Girls complete puberty faster than boys continue to develop into their early 20 their weight and physical size are concerns to teenagers . Sometimes they have poor spatial awareness as a result of their body changing
Social, emotional and behavioural
Plays with others sharing and obey rules self assured stable and well adjusted has mood swings and can easily be hurt concerned about rights and wrongs has strong likes and dislikes,can be bossy with friends and might change friends regularly likes to be helpful with chores. Plays well with others but mum is still role model shows sensitivity to others learning to control emotions independent getting dressed + cleaned think about who and what they want to become . Friendships mainly same ***. Fairly independent and confident
By 10 they show interest in the opposite *** by 10 most children want to send their time with friends and not family express their feelings and growing independence and will push boundaries friendships are very important, self conscious , often unsure about changes in settings. Follows rules competent at sharing, confident. Control emotions, can hide true feelings from someone, growing sensitivity and realise other have feelings too. Loyalty, mood swings puberty, aware of opposite *** sensitive to criticism more defined personality
Body changes can upset their self-esteem, need to resolve changes into adulthood, some are more assured about changes in settings, wants to spend more time with friends than family, peer pressure is a significant influence. Anxious over pressures at school, exploring boundaries with main carers.
Friendships are very important, peer approval, pushes at boundaries, personality has developed, hormones are at higher levels as bodies are still changing or for males might just be beginning. Behaviour linked to low esteem they might start trying smoking or drinking.
Children always have an innate desire to please and behave well however they can be tempted to stray and make a bad decision if they think no one is watching. Peer pressure will affect children’s moral choices as they want to please their friends. Are beginning to develop further concepts, such as forgiveness and fairness.
Kohlberg theorised that children develop moral reasoning by learning standards and principles from main carers, peers and other role models children between 6-12 years move from concrete reasoning to reasoning that is more abstract. Such as weather behaviour harms another person (concrete) to weather this behaviour is right or wrong. Sokol and chandler also theorised that children consider the motive and reasons for the behaviour of other people. Children become more empathic and sympathetic during this age. Continue to think rules are permanent and unchangeable as they are made by adults who must be obeyed and respected. Highly concerned with fairness.
Teenagers are impulsive due to the amygdala section of the brain develops first this is the impulse part of the brain the frontal cortex is for reasoning and control develops later so teenagers sometimes have no concept of morals this is a critical time when teenagers are finding their own identity and that they are starting to change into an adult. They are able to think beyond themselves, more and to understand the perspective of another.
Adolescents approach moral decision making in a way that reflect the complex moral decision making of adults Kohlberg believed that moral development in adolescence is learnt from law, fairness and duty. Adolescences are mostly concerned with caring for the closest personal relationships, as well as fulfilling their roles and responsibilities within their communities.
Speech becomes more social, less egocentric. The child has an intuitive grasp of logical concepts. Developing the ability to think of several things at once. Understanding the use of mathematical symbols, writing etc. Memory increases, be able to perform simple equations in their head, enjoy learning about their environment and the world around them. Will think in a more co ordinated way, can hold more than 1 view at a time.
Will have an increased ability to remember, speak and express their views, learning to plan ahead and evaluate what they do, increased ability to think and to reason, use other sources of information, have longer periods of concentration, curious about banned substances. Reading and writing confidently, increased preferences for subjects.
Starting to think abstractly, will question sources of information, becoming more globally aware, and thinking about their future.
High level of skills .
Speech and communication
Speech is fluent and correct, using descriptive language, can give full name, address and birthday, enjoys jokes, singing and rhyming, rapidly increasing vocabulary of 5000 words by 5 years, recognises new words and asks the meaning of them.
Telling jokes and enjoying chat verbal arguments being able to persuasion and negotiation
Most children are fluent speakers, readers and writers of their own language, increasing use of peer influenced slang.
9-11 years stories and writing that shows imagination as well as being legible and reasonable grammatical.
Good reading and writing skills negotiating and persuading peers and adults.
Use of technology to contact friends.
2 explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important
Sequence of development is very important like in unit 075 a baby needs to be able to sit before they can crawl, crawl before they can walk each sequence allows the child to build and develop the skills and physical ability to move to the next step without the step a child cannot move on and develop. Rate of development how fast a child can do sequence something, a small unimportant step can be missed out to make the rate of development faster i.e. potty training some children will not use the potty and go straight on to the toilet the sequence is still the same but faster. Sequences are needed in order to plan effectively for each child. Where as rate allows us to gauge a child’s development and if they need support.
that covers most sorry o-4 is not on my computer anymore